Allah exalted he said in the Quran:
There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the right path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower [2: 256]
The Explanation of the above aayah as Ibn Kathir mentioned in his book:
(There is no compulsion in religion), meaning, "Do not force anyone to become Muslim, for Islam is plain and clear, and its proofs and evidence are plain and clear. Therefore, there is no need to force anyone to embrace Islam. Rather, whoever Allah directs to Islam, opens his heart for it and enlightens his mind, will embrace Islam with certainty. Whoever Allah blinds his heart and seals his hearing and sight, then he will not benefit from being forced to embrace Islam.''
(Whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower) is in reference to, "Whoever shuns the rivals of Allah, the idols, and those that Shaytan calls to be worshipped besides Allah, whoever believes in Allah's Oneness, worships Him alone and testifies that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, then
Therefore, this person will have acquired firmness ﴿in the religion﴾ and proceeded on the correct way and the straight path.
(then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break) means, "He will have hold of the true religion with the strongest grasp.'' Allah equated this adherence to the firm handhold that never breaks because it is built solid and because its handle is firmly connected.
This ayah indicates that nobody is forced to be a Muslim if he does not wholeheartedly agree and accept the five pillars of Islam as well as the other rulings Islam enjoins such as kind treatment of parents, backbiting, and the ruling which pertain to adultery, fornication and apostasy. When a soul performs the Shahaada that is the 2 testimonies of faith which render one who pronounces them a muslim (Islam testimony, which is: There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his messenger), that soul has made a covenant with Allah and Allah stipulates within the statement "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah " is which he agreed to abide by, his obedience to ' Muhammad is the messenger of Allah ' by default entails that he abide by the stipulations upon which the messenger set in stone, one of them being that if he retracts from his covenant, then he will be executed. Such is the agreement he has accepted by pronouncing the Shahadah whether he knows it or not.
So the covenant one has made with Allah is an admission from the person who embraced Islam that he submits himself totally to the one who created the heavens and earth. It also denotes that the person has agreed on all Islam laws and teaching without any exceptions, in other words it’s a contract for ones life style between the person and his God (Allah) in all matters. Read more about the Islamic Teachings here.
Hence breaking such a great contract with the almighty God is considered as a great crime in Islam that the person who committed it doesn't deserve to live.
The one who announces his Islam has joined the jamaa’ah (main body) of the Muslims, and whoever joins the main body of the Muslims is required to be completely loyal and to support it and protect it against anything that may lead to fitnah or destroy it or cause division. Apostasy from Islam means forsaking the jamaa’ah and its divine order, and has a harmful effect on it. Execution is the greatest deterrent that will prevent people from committing such a crime.
The death penalty exists in the modern laws of man to protect the system from disorder in some situation and to protect society against certain crimes which may cause its disintegration, such as drugs etc. If execution can serve as a deterrent to protect man-made systems, then it is more appropriate that the true religion of Allaah, which Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it [Al Quran 41:42], and which is all goodness, happiness and tranquility in this world and in the Hereafter should punish those who commit acts of aggression against it and seek to extinguish its light and defame its image, and who fabricate lies against it to justify their apostasy and deviation. So Islam is more like a comprehensive system for the mankind that need to be protected through certain rules.
One may argue that someone may find that he was not satisfied in being a Muslim after he converts so he should have the freedom to apostatize and go back to his old faith. The reality that we have to mention here is that Islam is not a playground to be entered or left whenever someone likes to do so. The covenant that one makes is so great to be broke out by those who are playing with the religion of Allah.
However, Islam is not a barbaric religion where anyone who apostates is to be killed. One of the main conditions that need to be fulfilled before punishing the apostate is to kill him after asking him to repent while he is insisting on his kufr (disbelief). This is done by inviting him three times, teaching him about Islam, and clearing any doubts s/he may have. The messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said:
(Whenever a man apostatized from Islam call him to it and if he returned, otherwise kill him, and whenever a woman apostatized from Islam call her to it and if she returned, otherwise kill her) Al Haafith mentioned this narration in Fath Al Bari and improved it. [Fath Al Baari(272/12)]
A similar story occurred with a woman in the time of the prophet who apostatized, the hadeeth of Jabir that a woman called Umm Marwaan apostatized from Islam, then the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him gave an order to present Islam for her ,if she comes back or she got to be killed ' [ Sunan Addaarqutni(118/3), Sunan Al Bayhaqi Al kubraa (203/8)]
Another condition that worth to be mentioned here is the condition of the one who converted to Islam recently but wasn't fully aware of all Islam teachings then this person has to be advised first and also has to be given a detailed explanation of Islam and its rulings. If this person get satisfied and return back to Islam then that’s fine, otherwise, this person should NOT be killed because he was not aware of the religion he choose for himself.
Islam is not just a mere religion to follow; it’s a way of life that rules ones lifestyle in all its perspectives and organize his relation with his God, people, and himself. So it’s a whole system that deals with all society needs.
Some sources used in the above article:1. Killing the apostate if he does not repent - by Dr.Abdullah Qadiree Al Ahdal
This question – and others like it – contain a great contradiction. Many disbelievers try to use such questions in their debates with Muslims, seeking to force the respondent to say either “No He can’t” in which case they will say, “How can He be a god if He cannot create something?” or if he says, “Yes, He can,” they will say: “How can He be a god if He is unable to carry or lift this rock?”
The answer is:
This question is not valid at all because the power of Allaah is not connected to irrationalities. How can He be a god if He is unable to lift their “rock,” when one of the attributes of Allaah is power? Can there be any attribute in any created thing that is greater than the attributes of its Creator?
Professor Sa’d Rustam answered this question in a sound scientific manner, which we will quote in full here. He said:
The power of Allaah – which is undoubtedly absolute and unlimited – is connected to things that are rationally possible, not things that are rationally impossible. No matter how absolute and limitless His power, it must still remain within the bounds of possibility, and it is not connected to irrationalities. This is not a limitation of it. In order to clarify this point we will give some examples:
We ask all of these bishops and theologians: Can God create another god like Him? If they say yes, we say to them: How can this created being be a god if he is created? How can he be like God when he has a beginning, whereas God exists from eternity? In fact the phrase “creating a god” is a sophism or false argument, and is a contradiction in terms, because the mere fact that something is created means that it cannot be a god. This question is like asking could God create “a god who is not a god”? it is self-evident that the answer can only be: The power of Allaah has nothing to do with that, because the idea that something can be a god and not a god is illogical and is irrational, and the power of Allaah has nothing to do with irrationalities.
Another example: We may also ask them: Can God really expel anyone from under His control? If they say yes, they have imposed a limit on the control of Allaah, and if they say no – which is correct – they have agreed with us that the power of Allaah is absolute and has nothing to do with irrationalities, because it is rationally impossible for any created being to be expelled from the control of its Creator.
A third example: One day one of the disbelievers asked me: Can your Lord create a rock that is so huge that He would be unable to move it? And he added in a sarcastic manner: If you say, yes He can, you will have stated that your Lord is unable to move the rock, and this indicates that He is not a god, but if you tell me, No, He cannot, you will have admitted that He is not able to do all things, therefore He is not a god.
I answered this disbeliever simply: Yes, it is not part of the power of Allaah that He is able to create a rock that He is unable to move, because everything that Allaah creates He is able to move, but the fact that it is impossible for the power of Allaah to be connected to the creation of this supposed rock does not indicate that He is lacking in power. Rather – on the contrary – it is indicative of His complete power, because this question of yours is like asking: Can Allaah be unable to do something that may be rationally possible? No doubt, if we say no, this does not mean that the power of Allaah is limited, rather it is an affirmation of the completeness of His power, because not being incapable means having power. If we say that Allaah cannot be unaware of or forget anything, saying that does not mean that He is incapable or is lacking, rather it is an affirmation of His perfection and complete power and knowledge.
The Four Gospels and the Epistles of Paul and John deny the divinity of Christ as it is denied by the Qur’aan,
by Sa’d Rustam.
Allah has put us on this earth to worship Him alone. The core of this worship, and hence the medium which
qualifies for Paradise and Hell, is dependent on the individual’s acceptance or rejection of the concept of
Tawheed, that is the belief and worship of Allah without attributing partners to His worship and Lordship. In
other words one who accepts and believes in Tawheed and dies upon this has qualified for Paradise, whereas
one who has disbelieved and rejects Tawheed and dies upon this, has qualified for Hell.
Allah has not been unjust to us (His servants) in that He has not left us in the dark in regards to what Paradise
and Hell is. Rather, He has sent messengers and informed us of the criteria for how to worship Him. Included in
it, is not only a set of rules and laws to be abided by in this life, but also a significant and elaborative insight to
the life of the hereafter for both the inhabitants of Paradise and Hell, as well as what the requirements
necessary for each.
As well as informing us of this criterion, Allah also gave us intelligence, insight and free will, enabling for us to
decide whether to accept or reject this message, consequently to be judged in the hereafter for the decision
we choose to make and die upon.
Such a scenario can be compared to a teacher who sets his students an assignment to be completed according
to a set criteria and expectations. On the due date, student x hands in her assignment, fulfilling the
expectations and criteria required for an ‘A’ grade. Consequently, the teacher awards student x with an ‘A’
grade, as she had earned.
However, Student y hands in his assignment, not fulfilling the criteria required, hence he is not awarded with
an ‘A’ grade.
Is it possible and acceptable that the teacher awards Student y with an ‘A’ grade a high grade if the
requirements set to meet an ‘A’ grade have not been fulfilled? Is it not unfair and discriminatory towards the
other students who chose to work for their efforts and fulfilled the requirements, that student y gets good
grades despite the fact that he hasn’t worked for it or fulfilled what was necessary of them to get an ‘A’ grade?
To understand this matter further, it is important to understand it from numerous angles.
1) The fate of a Muslim who may enter Hell.
It is known that a Muslim, despite his or her acceptance of Tawheed , may go to hell on account of committing
the major sins (such as disobedience to parents , consuming alcohol and murder) and not repenting from such
deeds before death. In such a case, it is up to Allah to choose whether He will forgive them or not, punishing
them in a manner that commensurate with their sin, being saved only through their acceptance of and belief in
The significant point here is that the belief in Tawheed (as per present in a Muslim) is what saves the individual
from abiding for eternity in Hell, whereas it is the rejection of Tawheed (as per present in a non‐Muslim) that
causes one to dwell in the Hell‐Fire.
Is it fair to grant one who has fulfilled the requirements for Paradise, the same status and reward of one who
doesn’t believe and/or accept Tawheed‐the distinguishing characteristic essential for qualification to Paradise?
Is this not discrimination to those who are sincere and honest in their belief and have truly worked for it?
Similarly, can an employee demand a pay rise for a position that they have not earned!? Of course, any sound
mind rejects this.
2) The refutation against the claim that it is discrimination that non‐Muslims abide in Hell forever is
based upon the Quranic Verse:
‘…And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning)’ [17:15]
Renowned Muslim scholars have commented on this verse saying that:
A person who has never heard of Islam, and who has never heard the message in its correct and true form, will
not be punished by Allaah if he dies in a state of kufr (disbelief). If it were asked what his fate will be, the
answer will be that Allaah will test him on the Day of Resurrection: if he obeys, he will enter Paradise and if he
disobeys he will enter Hell.
Everyone who hears the message of Islam in a sound and correct form (and rejects it) will have evidence
against him. Whoever dies without having heard the message or having heard it in a distorted form, and then
his case is in the hands of Allah.
The subtle note here is the individual’s own responsibility to accept the message after it has come to them in
its correct form. In the above scenario, Islam had not yet reached them or have they received it in a distorted
form which disenables them to make a consciousness, educated, and intentional decision, they are thus not
held accountable in this life, despite their dying in a state of disbelief.
So when one does reject Tawheed without a valid excuse (as above) he is held accountable accordingly to his
own individual decision as he has no excuses for knowingly rejecting Tawheed. In other words the excuse that
renders one unaccountable has now been lifted, consequently making the individual responsible for his own
3) As for the one who dies in a state of insanity and/or is mentally challenged, (hence his inability to
decide his choice in after life) the verdict is that such people are not held accountable for what they say or do
due to their absence of sound mind and inability to discern. Such ruling is also inclusive of children.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Pen has been lifted from three: from the
sleeping person until he wakes up, from the minor until he grows up, and from the insane person until he
comes to his senses.”
If discrimination was truly the case, then such individuals would be also be punished for disbelieving since they
have died upon disbelief, the qualifier of Hell. But of course this is ludicrous as such a person is excused due to
their psychological state which renders them enable to make sound decisions.
4) Disbelieving in Tawheed however, does not negate the reward a non‐Muslim will receive for his or her
good deeds in this life as the good deeds that a non‐Muslim accomplishes are rewarded in this life.
The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: "[...] the disbeliever is given in this life the reward for good deeds he
has performed, and when he comes to the Hereafter, there is no good deed for which he can be rewarded."
This again affirms that Tawheed is a requirement for Paradise; hence one who lacks it cannot be rewarded
accordingly in the afterlife. However their deeds are still rewarded in this life however it is the absence of the
belief of Tawheed which has earned them their reward in this life and this life only.
In Summary, the key to paradise is Tawheed‐ or belief and worship of Allah without attributing partners to His
worship and likewise the key to Hell is its opposite. That is, the absence or rejection of Tawheed . One who
accepts Tawheed and dies in this state‐A Muslim has met the criteria for the acceptance of Paradise, and one
who doesn’t accept Tawheed and dies in this state‐a non‐Muslim hasn’t met the criteria for paradise hence
their rejection of entering Paradise.
It is not the case that one who goes to Paradise is a Muslim per se and one that goes to Hell is a non‐Muslim,
rather it is one who accepts and believes in Tahweed and does upon this state, or one who rejects Tawheed
and dies in this state.
It is evident that such allegations of discrimination against non‐Muslims are easily dissolved and rejected when
understood in the proper perspective and context that they come with. In light of the examples and evidences
aforementioned, an individual is held accountable for their own actions, except in the case where they are still
minors or are of unsound mind due to their inability to reach a sound decision.
One of the most common attacks on Islam is the allegation the prophet Mohammad (peace and blessing from Allah be upon him) is an impostor. This is not a modern attack but it is a very old one from the early days when that the prophet (peace and blessing from Allah be upon him) announced to people that he is the messenger of God. The disbelievers of
In the following paragraphs, we will not only discuss the accusations that he was accused of, but also the different offers that were made to him in attempt to stop the spreading of the message Islam.
As discussed earlier, Muhammad (peace be upon him) made the claim, ‘I am God’s Messenger.’ Either he was true in his claim or he was not. We will begin by the assuming the latter and will investigate all possibilities raised by skeptics of past and present, discussing some of their misconceptions. Only if all other possibilities are exhausted can one reasonably conclude that the only possibility left is that he was true in what he claimed. We will also look at what the Quran has to say on the matter.
Was he a Liar?
First, let us touch upon and look into the type of person he was before he made that claim of "I am God's messenger"
Before Islam, he was well-known to his own people to be trustworthy and reliable, an honest man, a person of integrity, who did not lie. It was due to this reason they named him “Al-Ameen”, or “The Trustworthy” He was strongly opposed to lying and warned against it.
Is it possible for him to tell a consistent lie for 23 years, a lie so monstrous that it would make him a social outcast where he would be disfavored and disrespected by the people of Macca at that time; but that was not the case because even after he claimed the prophethood the people were still respecting him and some of them were entrusting or safekeeping their money with him because they were trusting him the most out of anyone in Macca. So what kind of contradiction is that? They accused him of the worst accusations then trust him to keep and protect their money!
He was never known to have lied even once about anything. Yet the disbelievers of Quraish accused him of lying when they were the ones who named him "The Trustworthy"!!
A liar will falter sometimes, perhaps with a friend, maybe with his family members; somewhere along the line he will make a mistake. His message, delivered over two decades, will contradict itself sometimes. But what we see in reality is that the scripture he brought declares and exhibits freedom from inconsistencies, his message remained consistent throughout his mission, and even in the midst of a battle (“the pinnacle of hardship” or “and hardship”), he proclaimed his prophet-hood! Neither hardships nor battles affected his prophethood. If someone read the Quran he will notice the consistency in the Quran from the first chapter till the last one.
Was he Insane?
Mental disorders are like any other illness in that it has symptoms and those who are mentally unstable can be easily identified by their symptoms. Muhammad (peace be upon him) displayed no symptoms of insanity at any time in his life. No friend, wife, or family member suspected or abandoned him due to insanity. He preached for a long time and brought a Law unknown in its completeness and sophistication to ancient Arabs. If the prophet was insane, it would have been obvious to those around him at one point in a period of twenty three years. If he was insane there was no way that he could have called for the same thing in such a perfect way for more than two decades. When in history did an insane man preach his message telling people to worship One God for a long time, three years of which he and his followers spent in exile, and eventually became the ruler of his lands? Which insane man has ever won the hearts and minds of people who met him and earned the respect of his adversaries? And even more so, how did the message of an insane man reach us undistorted 1400 years later?
More so, his closest companions, Abu Bakr and Umar were recognized for their abilities, nobility, skills, and finesse. Abu Baker was one of Quraish's wise leaders, while Umar was one of the bravest men at that time so much so that anyone would think twice before harming him. They were willing to sacrifice anything for the religion he brought. On one occasion, Abu Bakr, brought all his material possessions to Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, and when asked what he left for his family, responded, ‘I left for them God and His Messenger!’
So is it possible for such great, wise, strong people to follow an insane man?
Was he a Poet?
God mentions their accusation in the Quran and responds to it:
“Or do they say (of you), ‘A poet for whom we await a misfortune of time?’ Say, ‘Wait, for indeed I am, with you, among the waiters.’ Or do their minds command them to (say) this, or are they a transgressing people? Or do they say, ‘He has made it up?’ Rather, they do not believe.” (Quran 52:30-32)
God describes the poets of that time so the Prophet can be compared with them:
“And as for the poets - (they, too, are prone to deceive themselves: and so, only) those who are lost in grievous error would follow them. Art thou not aware that they roam confusedly through all the valleys (of words and thoughts), and that they (so often) say what they do not do (or feel)? (Most of them are of this kind -) save those who have attained to faith, and do righteous deeds, and remember God unceasingly, and defend them¬selves (only) after having been wronged, and (trust in God’s promise that) those who are bent on wrong¬doing will in time come to know how evil a turn their destinies are bound to take!” (Quran 26:224-227)
Let's see first what the Arabian poets were talking about in their poems. The topics of poems before Islam were mainly concentrated on speaking of wine, womanizing, war, and leisure unlike the Prophet who invited to good manners, serving God, and helping the poor. Hence the difference is very obvious between the two types of poetry. Muhammad (peace be upon him) followed these unique teachings before anyone else unlike the poets of old or philosophers of today.
The Quran which the Prophet recited was unlike any poetry in its style. The Arabs of the time had strict rules in regards to rhythm, rhyme, syllables and endings to each verse of poetry. The Quran did not conform to any of the rules which were known in the time, but at the same time, it surpassed any type of text which the Arabs had ever heard. Some of them actually became Muslims after hearing only a few verses of the Quran, due to their certain knowledge that the source of something so beautiful is above the level of the humans' ability no matter how good they can be.
One of the most eloquent among Arabs Al-Walid Ibn Al-Mugheerah who was well verses in the Arabic poetry, was one of those who were astonished when the prophet recited some of the Quran to him.
Muhammad (peace be upon him) was never known to have composed a poem before Islam or after prophethood. Rather, the Prophet had a severe dislike for it. Compilations of his statements, called Sunnah, have been diligently preserved and are completely different in its literary content than the Quran. The store-house of Arabic poetry does not contain any couplets by Muhammad (peace be upon him).
Was he a Sorcerer?
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) never learned or practiced sorcery. On the contrary, he condemned the practice of sorcery and taught his followers how to seek protection against it. Allah forbade the practice of magic and sorcery in many verses:
And the magician thrives not, (no matter) where he goes." [ Al Quran 20:69]
Also, the prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) condemned the practicing of sorcery and magic on many occasions. He said:
"Keep away from the seven destructive sins!" They said, "What are they, O Messenger of Allah?" He answered, "Associating partners with Allah; practicing sorcery; taking a life, which Allah has made forbidden except for a just cause (according to Islamic Law); eating Riba (usury) eating up an orphan's wealth; fleeing from the battle field at the time of fighting (with the unbelievers); and accusing chaste women, who never think of anything that can touch their chastity and who are good believers, of fornication. (Bukhari and Muslim)
And he also said:
“Whoever blows on knots practices magic, and whoever practices magic is a mushrik (polytheist).” (At-Tabarani)
Sorcerers have a strong relationship with the devil. Their partnership allows them to deceive people. Devils propagate lies, sins, obscenities, immorality, evil, and they destroy families. The Quran clarifies those upon whom the devils descend:
“Shall I inform you upon whom the devils descend? They descend upon every sinful liar. They pass on what is heard, and most of them are liars.” (Quran 26:221-223)
Therefore, for someone who practices sorcery and magic, he has to have a strong relationship with the devil and Jinn which means obeying them in anything they asked for. In other words, the sorcerer has to deal with them as if they are a supreme power hence associating partners with Allah and committing Shirk which is what Islam came to abolish, rather it called for worshipping the one true God.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was known and recognized to be a man of integrity true to his word who was not known to have ever lied. He commanded good morals and fine manners. No sorcerer in world history has brought a scripture like the Quran or a Law like his.
So, how can one implement something he condemned and always ordered people to stay away from it?
What he was looking for through his claim?
1. Was he after money?
When the leaders of Quraish at Macca saw that his followers started to grow in number they tried another strategy with him in order to stop him calling people in Macca to Islam. The prophet (peace be upon him) received an interesting offer. An envoy of the pagan leaders, `Utbah, came to him saying: "If you want money, we will collect enough money for you so that you will be the richest one of us. If you want leadership, we will take you as our leader and never decide on any matter without your approval. If you want a kingdom, we will crown you king over us..."
He answered with some verses of the Qur’an: “In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. Ha. Mim. A revelation from (Allah), the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; a Book whereof the verses are explained in detail; a Qur'an in Arabic, for people who know, giving good news and warning, yet most of them turn away, so they do not listen." (Fussilat 41: 1-4) And he recited until verse 38.
Muhammad's wife `A'isha once said to her nephew, `Urwah ibn az-Zubayr, "O my nephew, we would sight three new moons in two months without lighting a fire (to cook a meal) in the Prophet's houses." Her nephew asked, "O Aunt, what sustained you?" She said, "The two black things, dates and water, but the Prophet had some neighbors of the Ansar who had milch camels and they used to send the Prophet some of the milk."
Anas, a Companion of Muhammad, said, "The Prophet did not eat at a table till he died, and he did not eat a thin nicely baked wheat bread till he died."
Muhammad's wife `A'ishah said, "The Prophet’s mattress on which he slept was made of leather stuffed with the fiber of the date-palm tree."
`Amr ibn Al-Harith, one of Muhammad's Companions, said that when the Prophet died, he left neither money nor anything else except his white riding mule, his arms, and a piece of land that he left to charity.
So he was living a hard life till he died. Sometimes he would ask his wife Aisha if they have any food, and if she answered that there is nothing to eat at home, he would say that he would fast. This thus shows that he had no desire for wealth, For how can someone who lived such a simple life possibly choose to reject an offering of wealth?
On another occasion and in response to his uncle's plea to stop calling people to Islam, Muhammad's answer was as decisive and sincere: "I swear by the name of Allah, O Uncle, that if they place the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand in return for giving up this matter (calling people to Islam), I will never desist until either Allah makes it triumph or I perish defending it."
In addition to this, as accounts show, his life changed after he became a prophet of Allah as he was the husband of a wealthy tradeswoman, and he enjoyed the comforts of life available to him at his time. However after his prophethood, he became of the poorest of people. Days passed without a stove fire being lit in his house, and at one time, hunger drove him to the mosque in hope of some provision.
3. Was he after women?
He became a messenger of Allah when he was married to Khadijah who was older than him by 15 years. He married her when he was 25 and she was 40 years old. When she died he remained unmarried for such a long time. When he decided to marry again he married Sawda bint Zam'a who was a middle-aged widow and neither young nor beautiful woman.
The only virgin woman he married among all his wives was Aisha Bint Abi-Baker (May Allah be pleased with them). The rest of his wives were either widows or divorced.
4. Was he after authority, leadership, and fame?
We have already mentioned the following offer that the prophet (peace be upon him) from the disbelievers:
He received an interesting offer. An envoy of the pagan leaders, `Utbah, came to him saying, "If you want money, we will collect enough money for you so that you will be the richest one of us. If you want leadership, we will take you as our leader and never decide on any matter without your approval. If you want a kingdom, we will crown you king over us..."
And we have already said earlier that he refused that offer. Even among his followers he wasn't looking for glory or any great position. His followers loved him, respected him, and trusted him to an amazing degree. Yet he continued to emphasize that he should not be deified; only Allah was to be worshipped. His Companion Anas reported that there was no person whom they loved more than the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), yet when he came to them, they did not stand up for him because he hated their standing up for him as other people do with their great people.
When anyone come to Madinah to meet the prophet (peace be upon him) and had never seen him before they would enter the room that he and his companions sit together in and would asked which one among them is the prophet Mohammad, That was because he was not sitting in a different place or some kind of special chair or throne which would distinguish him as a leader. Also, he did not dress differently in a way that showed that he was the leader of Muslims but wore the same clothing as the people of medina did, different from the kings and leaders of that time.
Despite his responsibilities as a Prophet, a teacher, a statesman, and a judge, Muhammad (peace be upon him) used to milk his goat, mend his clothes, repair his shoes, help with the household work, and visit poor people when they got sick. He also helped his Companions to dig a defensive trench by moving sand with them. His life was an amazing model of simplicity and humbleness.
Some sources used in the above article:Muhammad’s Claim to Prophethood Part 2, Part 3
The "pleasure" of Allah? Is God's action of punishment or mercy and guidance or misguidance arbitrary? Verse 29:21 states that God punishes and shows mercy as He pleases, and verse 14:4 states the same about His guidance and misguidance.
Verses in question:
He punishes whomever He wills, and bestows His mercy on whomever He wills; and unto Him you shall be made to return. [Al Quran 29:21]
And We sent not a Messenger except with the language of his people, in order that he might make (the Message) clear for them. Then Allah lets go astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. [Al Quran 14:4]
1. First, there is no 'contradiction' in these verses at all, and we can only wonder why the critic has chosen to label it as such. As for the interpretation of these verses, they are all explained within the Qur'an itself. With regards to the punishment and mercy of Allah, they are delivered with complete justice to whomever deserves it. Indeed, Allah has the power and strength to punish whomever He pleases, but in His justice His punishment does not befall any except those deserved it. When describing the punishment that befell previous disbelieving nations, the Qur'an states:
It was not Allah Who wronged them, but they wronged their own souls. verses [9:70], [29:40], [30:9]
And in another location, Allah mentions:
And We wronged them not, but they have been the wrong-doers themselves. [Al Quran 43:76]
Thus, it is clear that Allah punishes those who are sinful, who reject His signs and continue to oppress His creation on earth. His punishment is given to those who deserve it. The same is true for His mercy:
And obey Allah and the Messenger so that ye may obtain mercy. [Al Quran 3:132]
So establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity; and obey the Messenger so that ye may receive mercy. [Al Quran 24:56]
The Believers are but a single Brotherhood: So make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah, that ye may receive Mercy [Al Quran 49:10]
Just like His Punishment, it is evident that Allah's mercy is given for a purpose, to those who enjoin right and forbid wrong and perform righteous deeds, worshipping Allah with sincerity.
2. We can use the same method to determine the reasons behind Allah's guidance and His allowance of someone to go astray. With regards to guidance, we have already mentioned the verse, [Allah] guides whom He wills. The question is - who does Allah will to be guided? The answer is given in the Qur'an:
The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah - the which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him). [Al Quran 42:13]
... So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allah and His words: follow him that (so) ye may be guided. [Al Quran 7:158]
Thus, Allah guides those who turn to Him in prayer and seek His guidance. . Those who turn to their creator and fulfil their duty will receive further guidance. While those who are cruel to God's creation, who reject His blessings with ingratitude, they will be punished and are not worthy of guidance. They will only be allowed to stray even further. Allah clarifies who is allowed to go astray:
But He causes not to be misguided except the iniquitous. Those who break Allah's Covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allâh has ordered to be joined, and spread corruption on earth, it is they who are the losers. [Al Quran 2:26-27]
Have you seen him who takes his own lust (vain desires) as his god, and Allah knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight. Who then will guide him after Allâh? Will you not then remember? [Al Quran 45:23]
...but Allah guides not a people unjust. [Al Quran 3:86]
The Above article was written by Ansar Al 'Adl here with slight modifications