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The Consistency Between Modern Science and Quran

The Quran is the last revelation and a proof, not only to the pagan Arabs 1400 years ago, but also to the scientists of today. Perhaps one of the most remarkable qualities of the Quran is the complete consistency between most of the discoveries of modern Science and the Quran.

One of the first Western scientists to make a serious study of this subject was Maurice Bucaille, who wrote a book called The Bible, The Quran and Science. In this book, he compared the statements concerning natural and scientific data in the Bible and the Quran. He concluded: "The Quran follows on from the two Revelations that preceded it and is not only free from contradictions in its narrations and the sign of the various human manipulations to be found in the Gospels; but provides a quality all of its own for those who examine it objectively and in the light of Science, i.e. its complete agreement with modern scientific data. 

Furthermore, statements are found in the Quran (as has been shown) that are connected with Science, and yet it is unthinkable that a man in Muhammad’s time, could have been the author of them. Therefore, modern scientific knowledge allows us to understand certain verses of the Quran, which, until now, it has been impossible to interpret.

The comparison of several Biblical and Quranic narrations on the same subject shows the fundamental differences between the statements in the Bible, which are scientifically unacceptable, and declarations in the Quran which are in perfect agreement with modern data, for example, in the description of Creation and the Flood.

An extremely important complement to the Bible was found in the text of the Quran on the history of the Exodus, where the two texts were very much in agreement with archaeological findings, dating from the time of Moses.

There are major differences between the Quran and the Bible on other subjects, which serve to disprove all the unfounded allegations that Muhammad, is supposed to have copied the Bible to produce the text of the Quran.”

In view of the level of knowledge in Muhammad’s days, it is inconceivable that many of the statements in the Quran which are connected with Science could have been the work of a man. It is, moreover, perfectly legitimate, not only to regard the Quran as the expression of a Revelation, but also to award it a very special place, on the account of the guarantee of authenticity it provides. The presence of scientific statements in the Quran which, when studied today, appear as a challenge to explanation in human terms.”

 

Some statements involving data confirmed by modern Science are:

1. The Accurate Description of Embryonic and Fetal Development:

At the time of Prophet Muhammad, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, , prevalent theories included those of Aristotle, who thought that a child was formed by the congealing of menstrual blood, catalyzed by the male blood, as rennet does to cheese. In the 18th century CE, Hartsoeker claimed to have seen within the sperm a pre-formed human being through the primitive microscopes.

The Quran reflected none of these theories, describing the embryonic human development with detailed accuracy (which means): "We created man from a quintessence of clay, We then placed him as a drop (Nutfah) in a place of rest firmly fixed, then we made the drop into an ‘Alaqah (leech-like structure) and then we changed the leech-like structure into a Mudghah, (chewed-like substance) and then We made out of that chewed-like substance bones; then We clothed the bones with flesh; then We caused him to grow and come into being and attain the definitive form. Blessed be Allaah, The Perfect Creator. After that, at length you will die. Again, on the Day of Judgment, you will be raised up." [Quran 23:12-16]

The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, further explained the meaning of ‘Nutfah’ as meaning both the male sperm and female ovum. The word ‘Alaqah has three meanings in Arabic:
1) A thing that clings
2) A blood clot
3) A leech-like thing.
All three accurately describe the first stage of the developing embryo. After the fertilization of the egg, a blastocyst develops, which has on its exterior villocites, which literally "cling" to the wall of the uterus. It then goes on to resemble a leech in both appearance and behavior and goes on to resemble a blood clot.

The next stage, when it becomes "chewed-like" substance, is also accurate. It is also true that the bones precede the development of muscle and flesh. The Prophetic traditions state: "When forty-two nights have passed over the conceptus, Allaah sends an Angel to it, who shapes it, makes its ears, eyes, skin, flesh and bones. Then he says: 'O Lord! Is it male or female?' And your Lord decides what He wishes and then the angel records it." [Al-Bukhaari]

This accurate information gives the correct time for the recognizable growth of the features described, and the sex of the fetus cannot be definitely determined until just after forty-two days.

This was not known until the invention of powerful microscopes only decades ago. Professor and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Toronto, Canada, and author of The Developing Human, Keith Moore, who is considered one of the world’s leading embryologists, said concerning these statements in the Quran and authenticated hadeeth: "Until the 19th  century CE, nothing was known about classifying the stages of human development. A system of staging human embryos was developed around the end of the 19th century CE based on alphabetical symbols.

During the 20th century CE, numerals were used to describe 23 stages of embryonic development. This system of numbering the stages is not easy to follow and a better system would be based on the morphological changes. In recent years, the study of the Quran has revealed another basis for the classification of the stages of the developing embryo, which is based on easily understood actions and changes in shape. It utilizes terms which were sent from God to Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel and recorded on the Quran… It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God because almost none of this knowledge was discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been a Messenger of God.”

 

2.Cosmology: 

Allaah Says (what means): "Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them. And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?" [Quran 2: 30]

This verse clearly mentions the common origin of the universe, a fact that was not discovered until forty years ago with the advent of nuclear physics. The separation seems to refer to what scientists call the "Big Bang." Moreover, all living things are composed of protoplasm, which consists of 80 to 85 percent water.

It is also mentioned in the Quran (what means): "Then, He rose over towards the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: 'Come willingly or unwillingly.' They both said: 'We come willingly.'" [Quran 41:11]

The word ‘smoke’ describes accurately the primeval state of the universe, which was composed of a hot gaseous mass, with particles moving vigorously like smoke. From this the stars, planets and the earth were formed. The Quran says (what means): "With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof." [Quran 51:47] It is an accepted fact that we are living in an expanding universe.

The Quran says (what means): "It is not for the Sun to overtake the Moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit." [Quran 36:40]

The Arabic word referring to a movement with self-propelled motion is the verb Yasbahoon (in the Quranic text). It implies a motion that comes from the body in question. If it takes place in water, it means to swim; it refers to the action of one's own legs if it takes place on land. For movement that occurs in space, it would mean: "to rotate."

The Sun is actually in orbit, not around the earth but around the center of the galaxy, so there is no contradiction, since the Quran does not specify the Sun's orbit. The Quran says (what means): "He coils the night upon the day and He coils the day upon the night." [Quran 39:5] To coil or to wind is the translation of the Arabic verb Kawwaraa. The original meaning of the verb is to coil a turban around the head.

The process of perpetual coiling, including the interpenetration of one sector by another is expressed in the Quran, just as if the concept of the Earth's roundness had already been conceived at the time, which is clearly not the case.

The Quran says (what means): "It is He who made the Sun a shining thing and the Moon as a light, and measured out their stages…" [Quran 10:5] The Quran describes the Sun as ‘Siraaj’ which means a torch, generating its own heat and light, whereas the Moon is described ‘An-Noor’ which is light originating from another source.

3.Geology:

The Quran says (what means): "Have We not made the earth as a bed; and the mountains as pegs?" [Quran 78:6-7]

And also (what means): “And Allaah has cast into the ground, mountains standing firm so that it does not shake with you.” [Quran 31:10]

It has recently been discovered that mountains have roots that go into the earth's crust, which is composed of seven tectonic plates. Their movement is the cause of earthquakes. It is thought that the roots and weight of the mountains play a vital role in stabilizing the earth's crust.


4.The Water Cycle:


The Quran correctly describes the water cycle, and the origin of underground springs as being from rainwater. Obvious you may think, but the Greek philosophers did not get it right, suggesting that underground springs were produced by sea spray collecting in caves, which fed a great underground sea through the 'abyss'! In fact, the water cycle was not accurately propounded until the 18th century CE. The Quran, however, states (what means): "Do you not see that Allaah sends down rain from the sky and makes it flow as springs (and rivers) in the earth?” [Quran 39:21]

These are a few of many statements and limited explanations of the statements contained in the Quran and traditions dealing with scientific subjects. The Quran is consistent with external realities, and it is also consistent internally. It is the nature of the works of men, be they scientists, philosophers, sages or mystics to contain inconsistencies and contradictions. This cannot be so with the Divine Revelation as the Quran states (what means): "Then do they not reflect upon the Quran? Had it been from other than Allaah, they would have found within it much contradiction." [Quran 4:82]

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